What are the
Common Symptoms of PCOS

to Conceive
Excessive Body
& Facial Hairs
Hair Loss
Oily Skin
or Acne
High Blood Sugar
Weight Gain

did you know?

Many women with
PCOS can have
regular periods

is one of the most
concerning issues
related to PCOS

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or hormonal issues?

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Affects Fertility

The imbalance in female sex hormones often affects women’s ovarian and uterine wellness.

In a fertile childbearing age, the hypothalamic hormones (FSH & LH) stimulate maturation of an egg in an ovary. Estrogen spikes then triggers ovulation, releasing the egg into the uterus for fertilisation.

  • In PCOS, the imbalance of the hormones hinders the maturation of the egg and prevents ovulation.
  • Many women with PCOS can have regular periods and ovulation. The hormone imbalance can affect the lining of the uterus and subsequently prevent implantation of the fertilised egg.
  • Women with PCOS can conceive naturally. However, hormone imbalances in PCOS could complicate the pregnancy with high blood sugar, stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, and labour difficulty.

Understand the
hormonal imbalances in PCOS

The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood. Scientists believe it to be a combination of hormonal and genetic factors. Further PCOS test is requirement to look in the underlying factors.

PCOS is associated with abnormal hormone levels in the body. Most symptoms and complications are caused by hormone imbalance. Certain genes have been linked with PCOS therefore it may run in families.

Thyroid Deficiency

Thyroid deficiency is when there is inadequate production of thyroid hormones from thyroid gland.

Thyroid deficiency directly affects ovulation and period regularity. Low thyroid hormones leads to increased prolactin, disrupting the balance between Follicular-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). High LH to FSH ratio leads to cysts formation in the ovaries. Thyroid deficiency can also cause insulin resistance, which further exacerbate PCOS’s hormone imbalance.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose. It facilitates body cells to take up blood glucose and consume it as energy.

Insulin resistance is a condition where pancreas produces too much insulin to the level that body cells start to resist it. Women with PCOS often have high insulin levels due to insulin resistance. Insulin excess disrupts ovarian function, leading to imbalance between estrogen and androgens.

In addition, persistent insulin resistance increases risk of getting diabetes mellitus.

Androgen Excess

Androgens are commonly known as “men’s hormones”. Low level of androgens is present in healthy women. Whereas in women with PCOS, androgen levels are higher.

Androgen excess interferes follicles maturation and suppresses ovulation. It disrupts both ovarian and uterine function, leading to irregular periods. Androgen excess can cause virilisation in women, which include excessive facial hair, acne, and hair loss.

Increase GnRH Pulse

GnRH is secreted from hypothalamus in a pulsatile pattern. It stimulates the pituitary gland to produce Follicular- Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormones (LH).

In women with PCOS, abnormal GnRH pulses increase the production of LH, which interferes LH to FSH ratio. Increased LH stimulates immature follicles, causing cysts formation in the ovaries.

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How PCOS is
usually diagnosed

Laboratory Test

Blood samples can be used for PCOS test in Malaysia. It helps to identify the affected hormones in PCOS, such as androgens, estrogen, FSH, LH etc. Laboratory PCOS test in Malaysia also can detect complications from PCOS which includes high blood sugar, fatty liver, and high cholesterols.

Ultrasound Scan

Ultrasound scan is a sound waves imaging technique. It is commonly used to assess the structure of ovaries and uterus. It can detect ovarian cysts, uterine fibroid, endometriosis, and pregnancy.

What can you do 

Lifestyle Changes

Currently, available treatment options in Malaysia rely on lifestyle modifications. Your doctor may advise a balanced diet incorporated with regular moderate exercise. However, these changes can be difficult for someone dealing with such intense hormone imbalances.

In recent years, unique diet plans such as low carbohydrate, Mediterranean, and intermittent fasting are getting popular. These special diet plans have been shown to produce short-term weight loss. However, it should be practised under professional supervision.

Hormonal approach to
increase your chances of
getting pregnant

Hormonal approach prioritises correcting deficiencies and imbalances to support natural and healthy pregnancies.

PCOS is complex hormonal imbalance effecting insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone.
It is hard to manage PCOS without addressing the underlying hormone imbalance.

Thyroid Hormone

The thyroid gland at the neck produces thyroid hormone (T4). T4 plays a role in many different systems in our body. It regulates our energy consumption and other hormones.

Optimising thyroid hormones

  • increases energy consumption
  • promotes weight reduction
  • stabilises mood
  • improves ovarian function

Insulin Hormone

The pancreas near our stomach produces the insulin hormone. Insulin helps our body cells to utilise sugar in the blood and convert them into energy.

Rebalancing insulin levels 

  • improve the balance between estrogen and androgens
  • support healthy and stable pregnancy
  • prevent diabetes mellitus


After ovulation, the corpus luteum is formed in the ovary. It produces progesterone, an important hormone to ensure your uterus is ready for embryo implantation and pregnancy. PCOS is often associated with progesterone deficiency.

Optimising progesterone 

  • regulates the period cycle
  • opposes excess androgen
  • prepares the uterus for pregnancy